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試題內容
Should Single-Sex Education Be Eliminated?

      A. Why is a neuroscientist here debating single-sex schooling? Honestly, I had no fixed ideas on the topicwhen I started researching it for my book, Pink Brain, Blue Brain. But any discussion of genderdifferences in children inevitably leads to this debate, so I felt compelled to dive into the research dataon single-sex schooling. I read every study I could, weighed the existing evidence, and ultimatelyconcluded that single-sex education is not the answer to gender gaps in achievement--or the best wayforward for today's young people. After my book was published, I met several developmental andcognitive psychologists whose work was addressing gender and education from different angles, and wepublished a peer-reviewed Education Forum piece in Science magazine with the provocative title, "ThePseudoscience of Single-Sex Education."
  B. We showed that three lines of research used to justify single-sex schooling--educational, neuroscience,and social psychology--all fail to support its alleged benefits, and so the widely-held view that genderseparation is somehow better for boys, girls, or both is nothing more than a myth.
The Research on Academic Outcomes
  C. First, we reviewed the extensive educational research that has compared academic outcomes in studentsattending single-sex versus coeducational schools. The overwhelming conclusion when you put thisenormous literature together is that there is no clear academic advantage of sitting in all-female or all-male classes, in spite of much popular belief to the contrary. I base this conclusion not on any individualstudy, but on large-scale and systematic reviews of thousands of studies conducted in every major English-speaking country.
  D. Of course, there're many excellent single-sex schools out there, but as these careful research reviews havedemonstrated, it's not their single-sex composition that makes them excellent.  It's all the otheradvantages that are typically packed into such schools, such as financial resources, quality of the faculty,and pro-academic culture, along with the family background and pre-selected ability of the studentsthemselves that determine their outcomes.
  E. A case in point is the study by Lirnda Sax at UCLA, who used data from a large national survey of collegefreshmen to evaluate the effect of single-sex versus coeducational high schools. Commissioned by theNational Coalition of Girls' Schools, the raw findings look pretty good for the funders--higher SATscores and a stronger academic orientation among women who had attended all girls' high schools (menweren't studieC.. However, once the researchers controlled for both student and school attributes--measures such as family income, parents' education, and school resources--most of these effects were erased or diminished.
  F. When it comes to boys in particular, the data show that single-sex education is distinctly unhelpful forthem. Among the minority of studies that have reported advantages of single-sex schooling, virtually allof them were studies of girls. There're no rigorous studies in the United States that find single-sexschooling is better for boys, and in fact, a separate line of research by economists has shown both boysand girls exhibit greater cognitive growth over the school year based on the "dose" of girls in a classroom.In fact, boys benefit even more than girls from having larger numbers of female classmates. So single-sexschooling is really not the answer to the current "boy crisis" in education.
Brain and Cognitive Development
  G. The second line of research often used to justify single-sex education falls squarely within my area ofexpertise: brain and cognitive development. It's been more than a decade now since the "brain sexmovement" began infiltrating (滲入) our schools, and there are literally hundreds of schools caught up inthe fad (新潮). Public schools in Wisconsin, Indiana, Florida and many other states now proudly declareon their websites that they separate boys and girls because "research solidly indicates that boys and girlslearn differently," due to "hard-wired" differences in their brains, eyes, ears, autonomic nervoussystems, and more.
  H. All of these statements can be traced to just a few would-be neuroscientists, especially physician LeonardSax and therapist Michael Gurian. Each gives lectures, runs conferences, and does a lot of professionaldevelopment on so-called "gender-specific learning." [ analyzed their various claims about sex differencesin hearing, vision, language, math, stress responses, and "learning styles" in my book and a long peer-reviewed paper. Other neuroscientists and psychologists have similarly exposed their work. In short, themechanisms by which our brains learn language, math, physics, and every other subject don't differbetween boys and girls. Of course, learning does vary a lot between individual students, but researchreliably shows that this variance is far greater within populations of boys or girls than between the twosexes.
  I. The equal protection clause of the US Constitution prohibits separation of students by sex in publiceducation that's based on precisely this kind of "overbroad generalizations about the different talents,capacities, or preferences of males and females." And the reason it is prohibited is because it leads fartoo easily to stereotyping and sex discrimination.
Social Developmental Psychology
  J. That brings me to the third area of research which fails to support single-sex schooling and indeed suggests the practice is actually harmful: social developmental psychology.
  K. It's a well-proven finding in social psychology that segregation promotes stereotyping and prejudice,whereas intergroup contact reduces them--and the results are the same whether you divide groups byrace, age, gender, body mass index, sexual orientation, or any other category. What's more, childrenare especially vulnerable to this kind of bias, because they are dependent on adults for learning whichsocial categories are important and why we divide people into different groups.
  L. You don't have to look far to find evidence of stereotyping and sex discrimination in single-sex schools.There was the failed single-sex experiment in California, where six school districts used generous stategrants to set up separatc boys' and girls' academics in the late 1990s. Once boys and girls weresegregated, teachers resorted to traditional gender stereotypes to run their classes, and within just threeyears, five of the six districts had gone back to coeducation.
  M. At the same time, researchers are increasingly discovering benefits of gender interaction in youth. Alarge British study found that children with other-sex older siblings (兄弟姐妹) exhibit less stereotypicalplay than children with same-sex older siblings, such as girls who like sports and building toys and boyswho like art and dramatic play. Another study of high school social networks found less bullying andaggression the higher the density of mixed-sex friendships within a given adolescent network. Then thereis the finding we cited in our Science paper of higher divorce and depression rates among a large group ofBritish men who attended single-sex schools as teenagers, which might be explained by the lack ofopportunity to learn about relationships during their formative years.
  N. Whether in nursery school, high school, or the business world, gender segregation narrows ourperceptions of each other, facilitating stereotyping and sexist attitudes. It's very simple: the more westructure children and adolescents' environment around gender distinctions and separation, the more they will use these categories as the primary basis for understanding themselves and others.
  O. Gender is an important issue in education. There are gaps in reading, writing, and science achievementthat should be narrower. There are gaps in career choice that should be narrower--if we really want tomaximize human potential and American economic growth. But stereotyping boys and girls andseoarating them in the name of fictitious (虛擬的) brain differences is never going to close these gaps.

1.[選詞填空]Hundreds of schools separate boys from girls in class on the alleged brain and cognitive differences.
    • 解題思路:由題干中的Hundreds of schools,separateboys from girls in class和brain and cognitivedifferences定位到G段。細節推斷題。定位段第二句指出,自從“腦部性別運動”盛行以來,已有幾百所學校開始跟風。第三句明確點出了一些州的公立學校因為男女生腦部、眼睛、耳朵和自助神經系統等的“先天性”不同而將男女分開教育。題干是對定位段的歸納總結,故答案為G)。

    2.[選詞填空]The findings of the national survey of college freshmen about the impact of single-sex schooling fail totake into account student and school attributes.
      • 解題思路:由題干中的national survey,collegefreshmen和student and school attributes定位到E)段。細節推斷題。由定位段第一句可知,LindaSax利用一項針對大學新生的全國大型調查的數據進行了一項研究。本段最后一句又指出,一旦研究人員將學生和學校的屬性納入考慮,研究結果就會不同,即本句暗示該研究沒有考慮到學生和學校的屬性。題干中的national survey,collegefreshmen和student and school attributes在定位段中可以找到完全一致的內容,故答案為E)。

      3.[選詞填空]A review of extensive educational research shows no obvious academic advantage of single-sex schooling.
        • 解題思路:由題干中的review,extensive educationalresearch和no obvious academic advantage定位到C段第一、二句。同義轉述題。定位句提到,作者回顧了大量的教育學研究,得出的壓倒性的結論是單性教育并沒有明顯的學業優勢。題干中的extensiveeducational research能在定位句中找到對應詞,no obvious academic advantage對應定位句中的no clear academic advantage,故答案為C。
        4.[選詞填空] Boys from coeducational classes demonstrate greater cognitive abilities according to the economists'research.
          • 解題思路:由題干中的9reater cognitive abilities和economists’research定位到F段第三句。同義轉述題。定位句提到,經濟學家的研究顯示,教室中有女生使男生和女生都有更多的認知發展。接下來一句提到,如果班級里有較多的女性同學,男生會比女生更加受益。也就是說,共同教育班級的男孩有更強的認知能力,故答案為F)。
          5.[選詞填空]Reviews of research indicate there are more differences in brain and cognitive development within the same sex than between different sexes.
            • 解題思路:由題干中的more differences,within thesame sex和between different sexes定位到H)段最后一句。同義轉述題。定位句指出,有可靠研究顯示,在學習方式方面,男女生內部存在的個體差異比兩性之間的差異要大得多。題干中的moredifferences對應定位句中的this variance is fargreater,within the same sex和betweendifferent sexes分別是對定位句中的withinpopulations of boys or girls和between the twosexes的同義轉述,故答案為H)。

            6.[選詞填空]As careful research reviews show, academic excellence in some single-sex schools is attributed to otherfactors than single-sex education.
              • 解題思路:由題干中的careful research reviews,academic excellence和other factors定位到C段。同義轉述題。定位段提到,周密的研究回顧顯示,某些優秀的單性學校之所以優秀并不是因為實施單性教育,而是由于學校的其他優勢,如經濟資源、教師素質等。題干與定位段意思基本一致,故答案為C。

              7.[選詞填空]The author did not have any fixed ideas on single-sex education when she began her research on thesubject.
                • 解題思路:由題干中的fixed ideas定位到A段第二句。同義轉述題。定位句提到,作者在剛開始為自己的書進行這個話題的研究時,并沒有確定的想法。題干中的did not have any fixed ideas是對定位句中的had no fixed ideas的同義轉述,故答案為A。
                8.[選詞填空] Research found men who attended single-sex schools in their teens were more likely to suffer fromdepression.
                  • 解題思路:由題干中的attended single-sex schools,teens和depression定位到M)段最后一句。細節歸納題。定位句提到,一項研究發現,很多在青少年時期接受單性教育的英國男性離婚和抑郁的發生率更高。題干中的men whoattended single-sex schools in their teens是對定位句中的men who attended single-sex schools asteenagers的同義轉述,題干中的were more likelyto suffer from depression是對定位句中的higherdivorce and depression rates的同義轉述,故答案為M。

                  9.[選詞填空] Studies in social psychology have shown segregation in school education has a negative impact onchildren.
                    • 解題思路:由題干中的social psychology,segregation和a negative impact on children定位到K)段。細節歸納題。定位段第一句指出,社會心理學領域已經證實,隔離會加深模式化和偏見;第二句又提到,這種偏見更易傷害孩子。題干中的social psychology和segregation可在定位段中找到對應詞,has a negative impact on children是對第一句中的promotes stereotyping and prejudice和第二句中的children are especially vulnerableto this kind of bias的歸納總結,故答案為K)。

                    10.[選詞填空] It wasn't long before most of the school districts that experimented with single-sex education abandonedthe practice.
                      • 解題思路:由題干中的wasn’t long before,most of the school districts,experimented和abandoned定位到L)段第二、三句。細節推斷題。定位句提到,加利福尼亞州六個學區推行單性教育實驗;但僅在三年中就有五個學區都回歸到共同教育模式。題干中的wasn’t long before對應定位句中的within justthree years,most of the school districts和experimented分別對應定位句中的five of the sixdistricts和experiment,abandoned是對定位句中的failed和gone back to coeducation的推斷,故答案為L)。
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