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  • 試題題型【閱讀理解 Section C】
試題內容
    There can be few more depressing stories in the entire history of man's exploitation of nature than the destruction of the unfortunate great whales. The whales have not only suffered untold cruelty but now face total extermination (滅絕.. Already entire populations have been wiped out, and the only reason why no species has yet been finished off is due to the vastness and inaccessibility (難達到. of the oceans; a pocket or two somewhere has always managed to escape. How ironic if biological extinction were to complete the job. 
    The basic rule of extinction is very simple: it occurs when a species mortality is continually greater than its recruitment. There are though, some very special additional factors in the case of whales. 
    Man does not actually have to kill the last whales of a species with his own hands, as it were, to cause its disappearance. Biological extinction will quickly follow the end of commercial whaling, should that end be due to a shortage of raw material, i.e. of whales. Whalers have long sought to defend their wretched trade by insisting that whales are automatically protected: as soon as they become rare, and therefore uneconomic to pursue, man will have no choice but to stop the hunting. That is a very nice theory, but it is the theory of an accountant and not of a biologist; only an accountant could apply commercial economics to complex biological systems. The reasons for its absurdity are many and varied. In the case of whaling it can be summed up in the following way. 
    When the stock has been reduced below a critical level, a natural, possibly unstoppable downward spiral begins because of three main factors. First, the animals lucky enough to survive the slaughter will be too scattered to locate one another owning to the vastness of the oceans. Secondly, whales being sociable animals probably need the stimulus of size able gatherings to induce reproductive behavior. It is quite likely that two individuals meeting through chance will not be compatible. (They can hardly be expected to be aware of their own rarity or to realize any need for adjusting their natural inclinations. . This is especially so with polygamous (一夫多妻的. species like the Sperm Whale. Thirdly, and perhaps most important in the long term, even allowing that the whales might still be able to band together in socially acceptable groups (thanks to their undeniably excellent communicative systems., there is a real danger, possibly even a probability, that the whales' gene pools would by then have sunk so low as to be biologically unviable. That is to say, the characteristics possessed by the original population would be whittled down to those characters possessed by only the few remaining individuals. The result of such a biological disaster is inbreeding (近親繁殖., less ability to adapt to new conditions, and less individual variety. Three words can sum it up: permanent biological extinction. The future . "hopes" of these animals are further discussed in the final chapter. 
1.[單選題]According to the passage, the extinction of whales is caused by
  • A.man's continuous evolution process
  • B.people's excessive hunting and killing
  • C.the changing living conditions in nature
  • D.the demand from a booming economy
  • 解題思路:該句意為:“在整個人類開發自然的歷史上,很少有比大鯨魚的不幸毀滅更令人沮喪的故事了。”由此可判斷,鯨魚的滅亡與人類對自然的開發,即捕殺活動存在因果關系。故B項與原文意思相符,為正確答案。題干中extinction與原文destruction對應。
2.[單選題]If whales scatter in the vast sea,
  • A.they will be destined to find the opposite sex
  • B.their gene pool will be on the edge of destruction
  • C.their chances of reproducing will be reduced
  • D.they cannot be the ideal ones to follow
  • 解題思路:由第二句可知“由于海洋的浩瀚性,幸免于屠殺的動物會變得分散,難以找到彼此”。而其結果將導致第四句提到的“偶然相遇的兩個個體很可能是不能共處的”,由此可推斷,鯨魚的繁殖機會將會減少。故C項符合文意,為正確答案。
3.[單選題]What can we infer from the basic rule of extinction?
  • A.Whales die more than they are born each year.
  • B.Whales' reproductive ability remains a very low rate.
  • C.The species of whales is doomed to extinction.
  • D.Whales' death rate keeps an increasing trend.
  • 解題思路:“物種滅絕的基本準則是很簡單的:當一個物種的死亡率持續高于出生率時,滅絕就發生了。”由目前鯨魚瀕臨滅絕狀況可推斷,其死亡率高于出生率。A項與原文意思相符,故為答案。
4.[單選題]What will happen if whale numbers drop to a certain degree?
  • A.The number will bounce back at a certain point.
  • B.Whales begin to adapt to new living conditions.
  • C.The extinction of whales becomes unavoidable.
  • D.A biological disaster will come to the earth.
  • 解題思路:該句意為:“當種群被降到臨界水平之下時……種群數量自然就會發生螺旋式下降,而且這或許是不可阻擋的。”由此可判斷,這種無法停止的下降趨勢會導致鯨魚種群的消亡。故正確答案為C。
5.[單選題]In whale hunters' eyes, whales' numbers can be adjusted by
  • A.people's growing awareness of the balance between ecology and business
  • B.their theory which has been derived from life experiences
  • C.a flexible biological system in which all species survive
  • D.the change of balance between market need and the amount of whales
  • 解題思路:該句意為:“……捕鯨者力圖通過強調鯨魚可以自動受保護來為他們卑鄙的勾當正名:鯨魚一變得稀有,就沒有捕捉的經濟價值了,那么,人們除了停止捕鯨外別無選擇。”由此可判斷。捕鯨者認為當鯨魚數量稀少時,由于不再具備市場價值會被停止捕捉,這樣它們通過自然的休養生息,數量會得到恢復,因此鯨魚的數量是可以通過市場需求調節的。故D項與文意相符,為正確答案。
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  • 參考答案:B,C,A,C,D
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