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A) The scene inside the Home Depot on Weyman Avenue here would give the old-time American craftsman pause. In Aisle 34 is precut plastic flooring, the glue already in place. In Aisle 26 are prefabricated

windows. Stacked near the checkout counters, and as colorful as a Fisher-Price toy, is a not-so-serious-looking power tool: a battery-operated saw-and-drill combination. And if you don't want to do it

yourself, head to Aisle 23 or Aisle 35, where a help desk will arrange for an installer.

B) It's all very handy stuff. I guess, a convenient way to be a do-it-yourselfer without being all that good with tools. But at a time when the American factory seems to be a shrinking presence. and when good manufacturing jobs have vanished, perhaps dilution of American craftsmanship, never to return. there is something deeply troubling about this.

C) This isn't a lament(傷感)一or not merely a lament-for bygone times. It's a social and cultural issue, as well as an economic one. The Home Depot approach to craftsmanship-simplify it, dumb it down, hire a contractor-is one signal that mastering tools and working with one's hands is receding in America as a hobby, as a valued skill, as a cultural influence that shaped thinking and behavior in vast sections of the country.

D) That should be a matter of concern in a presidential election year. Yet neither Barack Obama nor Mitt Romney promotes himself as tool-savvy(使用工具很在行的)presidential timber, in the mold of a Jimmy Carter. a skilled carpenter and cabinet maker.

E) The Obama administration does worry publicly about manufacturing. a first cousin of craftsmanship.When the Ford Motor Company. for example, recently announced that it was bringing some production

home, the White House cheered. "When you see things like Ford moving new production from Mexico to Detroit, instead of the other way around, you know things are changing." says Gene Sperling. director

of the National Economic Council.

F) Ask the administration or the Republicans or most academics why America needs more manufacturing, and they respond that manufacturing gives birth to innovation, brings down the trade deficit, strengthens

the dollar, generates jobs, arms the military and brings about a recovery from recession. But rarely, if ever, do they publicly take the argument a step further, asserting that a growing manufacturing sector encourages craftsmanship and that craftsmanship is, if not a birthright, then a vital ingredient of the American self-image as a can-do, inventive, we-can-make-anything people.

G) Traditional vocational training in public high schools is gradually declining, stranding thousands of young people who seek training for a craft without going to college. Colleges. for their part, have since 1985 graduated fewer chemical, mechanical, industrial and metallurgical(冶金的)engineers, partly in response to the reduced role of manufacturing, a big employer of them.

H) The decline started in the 1950s. when manufacturing generated a sturdy 28% of the national income, or gross domestic product, and employed one-third of the workforce. Today, factory output generates just 12% of G. D. P. and employs barely 9% of the nation's workers.

I) Mass layoffs and plant closings have drawn plenty of headlines and public debate over the years, and they still occasionally do. But the damage to skill and craftsmanship-what's needed to build a complex

airliner or a tractor, or for a worker to move up from assembler to machinist to supcrvisor-went largely unnoticed.

J) "In an earlier generation, we lost our connection to the land. and now we are losing our connection to the machinery we depend on." says Michael Hout, a sociologist at the University of California, Berkeley, "People who work with their hands." he went on, "are doing things today that we call service jobs, in restaurants and laundries, or in medical technology and the like. "

K) That's one explanation for the decline in traditional craftsmanship. Lack of interest is another. The big money is in fields like finance. Starting in the 1980s. skill in finance grew in importance, and, as depicted in the news media and the movies, became a more appealing source of income. By last year, Wall Street traders, bankers and those who deal in real estate generated 21% of the national income, double their share in the 1950s. And Warren Buffett, the good-natured financier, became a homespun

folk hero, without the tools and overalls (工作服_).

L) "Young people grow up without developing the skills to fix things around the house." says Richard Curtin, director of the Thomson Reuters/University of Michigan Surveys of Consumers, "They know

about computers, of course, but they don't know how to build them. "

M) Manufacturing's shrinking presence undoubtedly helps explain the decline in craftsmanship, if only because many of the nation's assembly line workers were skilled in craft work, if not on the job then in their spare time. In a late 1990s study of blue-collar employees at a General Motors plant (now closed) in Linden, N.J.. the sociologist Ruth Milkman of City University of New York found that many line workers. in their off-hours, did home renovation and other skilled work. " I have often thought," Ms. Milkman says, "that these extracurricular jobs were an effort on the part of the workers to regain their dignity after suffering the degradation of repetitive assembly line work in the factory. "

N) Craft work has higher status in nations like Germany, which invests in apprenticeship(學徒)programs for high school students. "Corporations in Germany realized that there was an interest to be served economically and patriotically in building up a skilled labor force at home; we never had that ethos(風氣),”says Richard Sennett, a New York University sociologist who has written about the connection of craft and culture.

O) The damage to American craftsmanship seems to parallel the steep slide in manufacturing employment. Though the decline started in the 1970s, it became much steeper beginning in 2000. Since then, some 5.3

million jobs, or one-third of the workforce in manufacturing, have been lost. A stated goal of the Obama administration is to restore a big chunk of this employment, along with the multitude of skills that many of the jobs required.

P) As for craftsmanship itself, the issue is how to preserve it as a valued skill in the general population. Ms.Milkman, the sociologist, argues that American craftsmanship isn't disappearing as quickly as some would argue-that it has instead shifted to immigrants. "Pride in craft, it is alive in the immigrant world." she says. Sol Axelrod. 37, the manager of the Home Depot here, fittingly learned to fix his own car as a teenager, even changing the brakes. Now he finds immigrant craftsmen gathered in abundance outside his store in the early morning, waiting for it to open so they can buy supplies for the day's work as contractors. Skilled day laborers, also mostly immigrants, wait quietly in hopes of being hired by the contractors.

Q) Mr. Axelrod also says the recession and persistently high unemployment have forced many people to try to save money by doing more themselves, and Home Depot in response offers classes in fixing water taps and other simple repairs. The teachers are store employees, many of them older and semi-retired from a skilled trade, or laid off. "Our customers may not be building cabinets or outdoor decks; we try to do that for them." Mr. Axelrod says, "but some are trying to build up skill so they can do more for themselves in these hard times. "

1.[選詞填空]Some people are trying to ride out the economic depression by doing more themselves.
    • 解題思路:題干中的economic depression, by doing more themselves定位到Q)段末句。Q)段主要講述了在經濟衰退期間,人們普遍感到手頭緊張,有些人開始嘗試自己多做點事,從而節約成本。題干中的economic depression對應原文中的hard times,故選Q)。
    2.[選詞填空]A sociologist argues that American craftsmanship, instead of disappearing, is being taken up by immigrants.
      • 解題思路:由題干中的sociologist, being taken up by immigrants定位到P)段第二句.P)段主要講述了美國的傳統手藝在移民人士中的發展。題干中的instead of disappearing對應原文中的isn't disappearing; being taken up by immigrants對應原文中的shifted to immigrants,故選P)
      3.[選詞填空]High school students are losing opportunities of learning a traditional craft at school.
        • 解題思路:由題干中的High school定位到G)段首句。G)段講述了高中和大學中傳統手藝的發展情況,公立高中傳統的職業訓練正在逐漸減少。題干中的losing opportunities對應原文中的declining和stranding;題干中的learning a traditional craft at school對應原文中的vocational training,故選G), strand意為“使擱淺,使滯留,使處于困境”,文中指由于公立高中的職業培訓課程正逐步減少,導致那些不想上大學且有意學習手藝的學生的愿望無法實現。
        4.[選詞填空]Mastering tools and working with one's hands used to be a valued skill in America.
          • 解題思路:由題干中的Mastering tools. working with one's hands. valued skill定位到C)段末句。C)段表達了作者對美國手藝行業日漸衰落的擔優。精通工具、能夠靠手藝吃飯曾經是一項很珍貴的技能。題干中的used to be a valued skill對應原文中的is receding... as valued skill,故選C)。
          5.[選詞填空]A study found that many assembly line workers did skilled work in their off-hours to restore their dignity as craftsmen.
            • 解題思路:由題干中的dignity, skilled work定位到 M)段末句。M)段講述的是,流水線作業讓擁有手藝的人沒有用武之地。但是這些人會在閑暇時間自己動手干活,找回自己作為手藝人的尊嚴。題干中的restore their dignity對應原文中的regain their dignity;定位句的extracurricularjobs代指上一句中的home renovation and other skilled work,這正好與題干中的skilled work對應,故選M).

            6.[選詞填空]Barack Obama did not present himself as skilled in craft work during his election campaign.
              • 解題思路:由題干中的Barack Obama, election campaign定位到 D)段。D)段講述總統們在競選時如何行待手藝行業.題干中的election campaign對應原文中的election year,故選D)。
              7.[選詞填空]There is insufficient attention to the negative effects on craftsmanship produced by the decline of manufacturing.
                • 解題思路:由題干中的insufficient attention. negative effects定位到I)段。I)段主要講述了制造行業的大量裁員以及工廠倒閉對于傳統手藝來說也存在很大影響.但這一影響還尚未引起人們的幣視。題干中的insufficient attention對應原文中的went largely unnoticed; negative effects對應原文中的the damage.故選I)
                8.[選詞填空]The fact that people can make more money in fields other than manufacturing contributes to the decline of craftsmanship.
                  • 解題思路: 由題干中的make more money. contributes to定位到K)段前三句。

                    K)段介紹手藝行業衰敗的另一個原因:利益缺失。題干中的make more money對應原文中的The big money; contributes to對應原文中的explanation for,題干是對定位句的總結,故選K).

                  9.[選詞填空]Compared with German counterparts. American companies did not work towards encouraging craftsmanship.
                    • 解題思路:由題干中的German定位到N)段。N)段講述了德國對待手藝行業的態度及做法。在德國,手藝活的地位很高。無論是從經濟還是從愛國的角度考慮,德國公司認為培養國內的技術勞動力符合自身利益。題干中的did not work towards對應原文中的we never had that ethos,故選N)。
                    10.[選詞填空]Most politicians or scholars fail to point out that manufacturing promotes craftsmanship.
                      • 解題思路:由題干中的politicians or scholars, manufacturing promotes craftsmanship定位到F)段。F)段講述了政府、共和黨人和大多數學術界人士極少有人就制造業對傳統手藝的影響發表評論。題干的politicians or scholars對應原文中的administration, or the Republicans or  most  academics;  manufacturing promotes craftsmanship對應原文中的manufacturing sector encourages craftsmanship,故選F)
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